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Slim Sandalias – Vacay Skechers Reggae yYfb67Igv
Conserv Biol. 2019 Jun;33(3):623-633. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13227. Epub 2019 Jan 4.
Veríssimo D1, 2, 3, Wan AKY4.

Author information

1
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Zoology Research and Administration Building, 11a Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3SZ, U.K.Sandalias Con Mademoiselle R Metalizadas Correas H2W9IED
2
San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, CA, 92027, U.S.A.
3
Oxford Martin School, Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Wildlife Trade, University of Oxford, 34 Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BD, U.K.
4
School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Abstract

in English, Chinese, SpanishDeporte De compras EccoVenta Sandalias Tiras Ropa españa DYHWE9I2

The unsustainable trade in wildlife is a key threat to Earth's biodiversity. Efforts to mitigate this threat have traditionally focused on regulation and enforcement, and there is a growing interest in campaigns to reduce consumer demand for wildlife products. We aimed to characterize these behavior-change campaigns and the evidence of their impacts. We searched peer-reviewed and grey literature repositories and over 200 institutional websites to retrieve information on demand-reduction campaigns. We found 236 campaigns, mainly in the grey literature. Since the 1970s, the number of campaigns increased, although for over 15% a start date could not be found. Asia was the primary focus, although at the national level the United States was where most campaigns took place. Campaigns most often focused on a single species of mammal; other vertebrates groups, with the exception of sharks, received limited attention. Many campaigns focused on broad themes, such as the wildlife trade in general or seafood. Thirty-seven percent of campaigns reported some information on their inputs, 98% on strategies, 70% on outputs, 37% on outcomes (i.e., changes in the target audience), and 9% on impacts (i.e., biological changes or threat reduction). Information on outcomes and impacts was largely anecdotal or based on research designs that are at a high risk of bias, such as pre- and postcampaign comparisons. It was unclear whether demand-reduction campaigns had direct behavioral or biological impacts. The lack of robust impact evaluation made it difficult to draw insights to inform future efforts, a crucial part of effectively addressing complex issues, such as the wildlife trade. If demand-reduction campaigns are to become a cornerstone of the efforts to mitigate the unsustainable trade in wildlife, conservationists need to adopt more rigorous impact evaluation and a more collaborative approach that fosters the sharing of data and insights.

© 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

KEYWORDS:

behavior change; cambios en el comportamiento; demand reduction; evaluación de impacto; ilegal; illegal; impact evaluation; mercado de fauna; mercado negro; mercadotecnia social; outreach; participación; reducción de la demanda; social marketing; trafficking; wildlife trade; 减少需求; 动植物贸易; 影响评估; 普及; 社会营销; 行为改变; 贩卖; 非法

PMID:
30259569
DOI:
10.1111/cobi.13227
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Grant support

Grant support

  • 2014 David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellowsh/Cedar Tree Foundation/
  • Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Willdife Trade/Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford/

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