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Conserv Biol. 2019 Jun;33(3):623-633. doi: 10.1111/cobi.13227. Epub 2019 Jan 4.
Veríssimo D1, 2, 3, Wan AKY4.

Author information

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Zoology Research and Administration Building, 11a Mansfield Road, Oxford, OX1 3SZ, U.K.Stile Gaudi' Bassi Nuovo Donna Sandali Nero srQthdC
San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Road, Escondido, CA, 92027, U.S.A.
Oxford Martin School, Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Wildlife Trade, University of Oxford, 34 Broad Street, Oxford, OX1 3BD, U.K.
School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 West Xingang Road, Guangzhou, 510275, China.


in English, Chinese, SpanishY Diapositivas En Negras Blancas Par Sandalias Usado Venta De wP80kXOn

The unsustainable trade in wildlife is a key threat to Earth's biodiversity. Efforts to mitigate this threat have traditionally focused on regulation and enforcement, and there is a growing interest in campaigns to reduce consumer demand for wildlife products. We aimed to characterize these behavior-change campaigns and the evidence of their impacts. We searched peer-reviewed and grey literature repositories and over 200 institutional websites to retrieve information on demand-reduction campaigns. We found 236 campaigns, mainly in the grey literature. Since the 1970s, the number of campaigns increased, although for over 15% a start date could not be found. Asia was the primary focus, although at the national level the United States was where most campaigns took place. Campaigns most often focused on a single species of mammal; other vertebrates groups, with the exception of sharks, received limited attention. Many campaigns focused on broad themes, such as the wildlife trade in general or seafood. Thirty-seven percent of campaigns reported some information on their inputs, 98% on strategies, 70% on outputs, 37% on outcomes (i.e., changes in the target audience), and 9% on impacts (i.e., biological changes or threat reduction). Information on outcomes and impacts was largely anecdotal or based on research designs that are at a high risk of bias, such as pre- and postcampaign comparisons. It was unclear whether demand-reduction campaigns had direct behavioral or biological impacts. The lack of robust impact evaluation made it difficult to draw insights to inform future efforts, a crucial part of effectively addressing complex issues, such as the wildlife trade. If demand-reduction campaigns are to become a cornerstone of the efforts to mitigate the unsustainable trade in wildlife, conservationists need to adopt more rigorous impact evaluation and a more collaborative approach that fosters the sharing of data and insights.

© 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.


behavior change; cambios en el comportamiento; demand reduction; evaluación de impacto; ilegal; illegal; impact evaluation; mercado de fauna; mercado negro; mercadotecnia social; outreach; participación; reducción de la demanda; social marketing; trafficking; wildlife trade; 减少需求; 动植物贸易; 影响评估; 普及; 社会营销; 行为改变; 贩卖; 非法

Grant support

Grant support

  • 2014 David H. Smith Conservation Research Fellowsh/Cedar Tree Foundation/
  • Oxford Martin Programme on the Illegal Willdife Trade/Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford/

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